Sectorul constructii in Uniunea Europeana - Noutati

01 iunie 2012 , 1129 afisari

Conform datelor furnizate de Fundatia Europeana pentru Ameliorarea Conditiilor de Viata, in statele membre ale Uniunii Europene peste 13 milioane de angajati lucreaza in sectorul Constructii, iar statisticile  arata ca numarul accidentelor mortale, leziunilor si bolilor profesionale este mai ridicat decat in orice alt sector de activitate (15% din totalul accidentelor de munca si 30% din totalul accidentelor de munca mortale din sectorul industrial), iar probabilitatea ca angajatii din acest sector sa sufere un accident de munca cu incapacitate temporara de munca este de doua ori mai mare decat media din celelalte sectoare de activitate.

Anual, la nivelul Uniunii Europene se inregistreaza:

- peste 1.300 de decese;
- peste 800.000 de accidentati, adesea grav;
- expunerea a cca. 600.000 lucratori la fibre de azbest;
- afectiuni osteo-musculo-articulare si auditive la peste jumatate din numarul angajatilor implicati in constructii.

Se pierd astfel 30 milioane de zile de lucru din cauza accidentelor de munca si 26 milioane de zile din cauza bolilor profesionale.

Cu toate eforturile de ameliorare a securitatii si sanatatii in munca in acest sector, numarul accidentelor de munca si al bolilor profesionale ramane inacceptabil si implica un cost extrem de ridicat (peste 3% din cifra de afaceri a sectorului).

Aceasta situatie se regaseste si in Romania. Astfel, in ultimii ani numarul accidentelor de munca mortale din constructii a atins nivelul statisticilor europene, la diferente semnificative fata de domeniile de activitate plasate pe locurile urmatoare, respectiv silvicultura si prelucrarea lemnului.

Din punct de vedere al numarului total de accidente inregistrate in sectorul constructiilor, acestea se situeaza pe locul 2 dupa sectorul minier. Indicii de frecventa, atat in cazul accidentelor mortale cat si a celor cu incapacitate temporara de munca depasesc indicatorii medii de frecventa pe economie.

Activitatea din constructii, prin specificul ei, ii expune pe angajati la o gama larga de riscuri pentru securitate si sanatate, la care se adauga si alte aspecte cum ar fi: nivelul, in mare parte scazut al pregatirii personalului, caracterul sezonier al muncii, mediul de munca variabil, modificarea frecventa a locatiei, procentul ridicat de lucratori fara forme legale.

Daca majoritatea accidentelor au loc pe santier, in realitate 2/3 din accidente au drept cauza un eveniment anterior lucrarilor pe santier deoarece rezulta din deficiente de concepere/proiectare a lucrarilor sau echipamentelor tehnice utilizate, fie din organizarea santierului si a intreprinderilor exterioare care intervin pe santier. In special activitatile desfasurate in paralel sau succesiunea activitatilor angajatilor din diferite intreprinderi reprezinta o cauza frecventa de accidente.

Dupa 1989, prin preluarea Directivelor Europene, in legislatia romana s-a schimbat problema abordarii conditiilor de munca in intreprinderi prin cresterea responsabilitatii angajatorilor, obligatii noi pentru angajati si constientizarea eficientei gestiunii riscurilor in securitatea si sanatatea in munca.

Directiva privind santierele temporare sau mobile (92/57/CEE), preluata la noi in tara prin HG 300/2006, detaliaza in acest context prevederi pentru sectorul constructiilor si precizeaza responsabilitatile partenerilor implicati in prevenirea riscurilor de accidentare si imbolnavire. Se sublinieaza necesitatea evaluarii riscurilor pentru securitate si sanatate in munca si a integrarii prevenirii riscurilor din momentul conceperii/proiectarii santierului si pana la faza de existenta a constructiei.

Studiile arata ca 2/3 din accidentele mortale care au loc pe santier sunt urmarea deciziilor luate in faza de elaborare a proiectului. Actorii principali ai acestei faze sunt arhitectii, proiectantii, gestionarii de contract si prestatorii de bunuri si servicii necesare pe durata constructiei.

In faza de constructie propriu-zisa, coordonatorii de securitate si sanatate, dirigintii de santier si managerii de proiect, angajatorii, subcontractantii si angajatii trebuie sa stabileasca o stransa colaborare pentru a elimina sau reduce riscurile. Deciziile luate in aceste faze au impact lung asupra sanatatii si securitatii persoanelor care ulterior asigura intretinerea si realizeaza lucrari in cladire. Utilizarea azbestului in constructiile secolului 20 ilustreaza in mod evident acest aspect. In cursul acestei faze de existenta a constructiei, deciziile luate de proprietarii de imobile si de cei responsabili cu intretinerea sunt foarte importante.

Pentru a integra toate aceste aspecte in gestiunea riscurilor profesionale HG 300/2006 prevede noi functii de coordonare (coordonatori de securitate si sanatate in munca). Prin intermediul unor instrumente cum ar fi Planul de securitate si sanatate in munca, Registrul de coordonare, Dosarul de interventii ulterioare si Declaratia prealabila, coordonatorii de securitate si sanatate in munca pregatesc interventia angajatorilor pe santier si au in vedere operatiile ulterioare de intretinere si transformare a cladirilor.

Atributiile coordonatorului de securitate si sanatate in munca nu-l exonereaza pe angajator de responsabilitatea pentru securitatea si sanatatea lucratorilor de pe santier!

Implementarea in mod practic a prevederilor HG 300/2006 presupune cunoasterea obligatiilor prevazute de legislatia de securitate si sanatate in munca cu referire la domeniul constructiilor, principalele riscuri care pot sa apara si masurile de prevenire in vederea realizarii de proceduri, posturi de munca si lucrari fara risc.

Pentru a veni in sprijinul firmelor de constructii si al tuturor actorilor implicati in prevenirea riscurilor profesionale specifice acestui domeniu, proiectul POSDRU 55075 - "Securitatea si sanatatea in munca, o premisa pentru competitivitate" si-a propus sa analizeze sectorul constructii sub toate aspectele privind securitatea si sanatatea in munca, pentru a putea sa furnizeze informatii referitoare la prevenirea accidentelor si bolilor profesionale in sector si sa evidentieze bunele practici in domeniu, existente pe plan european si national.

Obiectivul urmarit este organizarea flexibila a intreprinderilor in scopul cresterii competitivitatii in conditii de securitate si sanatate la locurile de munca.

In cadrul proiectului vor fi organizate 8 seminarii de informare (unul in fiecare regiune de dezvoltare) cu tematici bine definite din domeniul securitatii sanatatii in munca pentru managerii, anagajatii si antreprenorii din sectorul Constructii.

De asemenea se vor desfasura si urmatoarele cursuri gratuite de formare profesionala continua autorizate de Consiliul National de Formare Profesionala a Adultilor (CNFPA): „Competente antreprenoriale” si „Inspector in domeniul sanatatii si securitatii in munca”.

Cele doua cursuri de scurta durata se finalizeaza cu Certificat de Absolvire emis de Ministerul Muncii, Familiei si Protectiei Sociale si Ministerul Educatiei, Cercetarii, Tineretului si Sportului. La cursuri pot participa manageri, intreprinzatori si angajati ce activeaza in domeniul hoteluri, restaurante, catering, pensiuni etc., care au diploma de bacalaureat.

Proiectul se finalizeaza cu urmatoarele materiale informative:

o Ghid de securitate si sanatate in munca pentru sectorul constructii
o Brosura privind legislatia aplicabila sectorului constructii
o Fise informative privind principalele riscuri de accidentare si imbolnavire profesionala.

Aceste materiale vor fi diseminate unui grup tinta de 20.000 de firme din domeniul constructiilor.

Autor: dr. Ing. Stefan Pece, Sef Departament Sisteme de Munca, INDCPM ”Alexandru Darabont” Bucuresti

Contact pentru presă
Simona Culea, manager de proiect, INCDPM „Alexandru Darabont”, tel.: 021 – 313.17.26 int.
Alina Costache, PR manager; tel.: 031-405 04 21; - 22; [email protected]

Contact pentru presa

Simona Culea, manager de proiect, INCDPM „Alexandru Darabont”, tel.: 021 – 313.17.26 int.215, [email protected]

Alina Costache, PR manager; tel.: 031-405 04 21; - 22; [email protected]

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