Cum sa estimati corect bugetul pentru constructia unei case

14 mai 2014 , 33401 afisari

Constructia unei case incepe intotdeauna cu un plan: o data ce ati hotarat cum vreti sa arate, ramane sa estimati si cat va costa. Pentru ca estimarea bugetului sa fie cat mai realista trebuie sa tineti cont de cativa factori.

Costurile unei constructii depind in mare parte de dimensiunile casei, de materialele folosite, de zona in care va fi amplasata si de constructorul angajat. De asemenea, trebuie sa luati in calcul si costul documentatiei necesare pentru constructie. Hatisul birocratic este dens, iar taxele si autorizatiile sunt destul de scumpe.

Achizitia terenului, in caz ca acesta nu exista deja, trebuie facuta cu grija. Dat fiind ca volumul tranzactiilor pe piata imobiliara e relativ mic, trebuie sa cautati si sa comparati cat mai multe amplasamente pentru a va da seama daca pretul cerut de vanzator este unul corect.

Proiectul casei – pe internet, pretul unui proiect de constructie complet pentru faza cu detalii de executie care contine: proiectele de arhitectura, rezistenta, instalatii termice, sanitare si electrice, calculul de confort termic etc., incepe de la 2,5 euro/mp.

In cazul in care pe internet nu gasiti un model de casa care sa va placa, va trebui sa contactati diversi proiectanti care vor realiza proiecte personalizate. Pentru a alege cel mai bun pret, cereti oferta defalcata – pret proiect pentru obtinerea autorizatiei de construire, proiect tehnic de executie – arhitectura, structura, instalatii etc.

Spatiul locuibil va influenta si el costul final. In functie de numarul camerelor pe care le va avea casa puteti calcula cantitatea de materiale necesara pentru fundatie, pereti si acoperis.

In ceea ce priveste materialele de constructie, pe piata exista nenumarate optiuni. Puteti alege o casa din caramida, lemn, prefabricate sau chiar sticla. Acoperisul poate fi din tabla sau tigla. De asemenea, puteti construi o casa pasiva, cu materiale ecologice si panouri solare pe acoperis sau cu acoperis verde. Materialele pentru casele pasive tind sa fie mai scumpe decat cele obisnuite, insa pe termen lung investitia va va ajuta sa economisiti bani la intretinere.

Constructorul - Lucrarile se pot desfasura sub antrepriza unei firme de constructii sau in regie proprie. In prima situatie, antreprenorul analizeaza proiectul si oferteaza lucrarile de constructii. Este metoda comoda, dar mai costisitoare, antreprenorul incluzand in pret si serviciul de antreprenoriat, socotit ca un procent din valoarea intregii lucrari. Practic, un contract bine facut cu un antreprenor serios va scuteste de griji, singura obligatie care va ramane fiind aceea de a achita transele de plata.

In cazul in care realizati constructia in regie proprie, aveti grija sa includeti toate cheltuielile in estimarea de buget. Pentru realizarea unui buget realist nu este suficienta includerea cheltuielilor doar pentru constructia casei. Imprejmuirea si amenajarile exterioare reprezinta cheltuieli deloc neglijabile, care trebuie de asemenea luate in calcul.

Dupa ce ati reusit sa estimati cat mai corect bugetul, este momentul sa va faceti planul de finantare a constructiei. Daca ati economisit din timp, veti suporta cheltuiala mai usor. Din fericire, aveti la dispozitie diverse instrumente de economisire. De pilda, puteti opta pentru un produs de economisire-creditare oferit de o banca pentru locuinte.

Cum functioneaza un produs de economisire-creditare: initial, stabiliti o perioada de economisire de 3-5 ani, timp in care pe langa suma depusa lunar se aduna dobanda bancii si prima de stat de 25% din economiile anuale (care se acorda anual de catre Stat pana in limita de 250 de euro /an). Depozitul astfel constituit poate fi utilizat, impreuna cu un credit locativ. Astfel, daca si economisiti, costurile sunt mult mai mici pentru constructia casei mult visate.

Practic, pe langa depozitele lunare din veniturile proprii, beneficiati si de ajutorul statului si al bancii pentru a putea strange intr-o perioada de aproximativ 5 ani suma necesara doar din economisire. De exemplu, daca economisiti lunar 375 lei, acumulati echivalentul in lei a 1.000 euro pe an. In cinci ani veti avea echivalentul in lei a 5.000 euro doar din economii, plus 1.250 euro din primele de stat, la care se adauga dobanda bancii, capitalizata timp de 5 ani. Mai mult, daca banii tot nu va ajung, puteţi solicita un credit locativ in lei cu cea mai mica dobanda de pe piata, de 4,5%.


 


 

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