Lutul - material de constructie ecologic

25 noiembrie 2010 , 1379 afisari

In partea nordica a satului Sasca Romana, la iesirea din Cheile Nerei, se gaseste o casa mai aparte. In afara de faptul ca arata ca o casuta din povesti sau mai degraba ca acelea ale hobbitilor din „Stapanul Inelelor", casa este una in intregime verde. Adica ecologica 100%. Totul este conform normelor ecologice: de la materialele de constructie si pana la mobilier.

Ileana si Ion nu au fost multumiti cu o casa gata construita si, mai ales, plina de termopane, rigips si polistiren. Prin forte proprii si cu cunostinte culese de pe Internet si din carti de specialitate, Ion si Ileana - care este arhitect de profesie - s-au apucat si si-au construit propria casa. Numai ca aceasta este pur ecologica: de la pamantul, paiele, nisipul si pietrisul din pereti si pana la acoperisul din stuf si iarba si chiar mobilierul din lemn, totul este de natura ecologica.

Ileana povesteste „Sunt arhitect-designer din Romania care si-a petrecut ultimii 12 ani, traind si muncind in Canada. A fost bine acolo, locuiam la bloc, dar viata in aer conditionat, nu e pentru mine! Visul meu acum este sa introduc cob-ul ca alternativa de constructie ecologica in Romania. M-am apucat de lucru si m-am imprietenit cu toata lumea. Am fost ajutata si incurajata. Toti au vrut sa vada rezultatul si toti m-au ajutat".

Cob-ul este un amestec de pamant lutos, apa, paie si nisip. Se lucreaza fara cofraje, caramizi sau chimicale. Numele in engleza ,,cob" este cam acelasi lucru cu romanescul vaiuga, paianta sau pamant batut, adica lut. Diferenta este ca lutul, compozitia in sine, este framantat mult timp pana ce ajunge la o consistenta untoasa, o pasta asemanatoare cu aluatul de paine. Constructorii lucreaza in sistem spirala, iar forma este una unica, irepetabila, fiindca totul este facut manual, fara cofraje sau tipare.

Materiale locale ieftine

Ileana spune ca ,,aceasta constructie are impact minim asupra mediului. Nu este nevoie de sosele, aproape toate materialele se gasesc pe malul Nerei. Din saparea fundatiei am luat nisipul pentru pereti. Restul am adus cu atelajul tras de adevaratii ,,cai putere"; iarba decopertata in brazde am refolosit-o la acoperis, astfel incat cladirea devine doar un strat intermediar in eco sistem", a spus arhitecta. ,,Lutul are un impact minim asupra planetei prin reducerea consumului de lemn, metal si toate celelalte materialele toxice folosite in constructii. Fiindca este construita dupa cum vine lumina de la soare, casa este foarte eficienta din punct de vedere termic; racoroasa vara si calduroasa iarna." spune Ion.

Costuri minime

,,Daca mai pui si faptul ca pretul unei case cu trei camere este pe undeva la a zecea parte din costul unei case moderne, avantajele sunt concludente. Dar bineinteles ca aici stam de vorba doar cu cei ce vor sa se intoarca la natura, la adevarata casa ecologica", spune unul dintre vecinii din Sasca, Ion Mandrila. ,,Pentru o asemenea casa trebuie bani mai putini, dar timp mai mult, fiindca lutul trebuie sa se usuce", spune Ileana . ,,Am vazut ca si mare parte din mobilier, cuptorul, lavitele, sunt toate facute din... lut. Noi avem o casa de vacanta la Sasca, dar sora mea a inceput sa isi construiasca una din aceasta, ecologica", spune Adriana Telescu din Resita.

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