Cum se construieste fundatia?

21 aprilie 2010 , 14303 afisari

Vom analiza cazul unei fundatii sapate „in santuri”.

Primul pas ce va fi facut este, desigur, saparea fundatiei. Lucrarea se va face respectand intocmai planul de fundare, in care sunt trecute toate datele importante (cote, largimea fundatiei etc.).

Imediat dupa aceasta se toarna o sapa de beton slab, gros de 4-5 cm, doar sub stalpii de armare (pozitia lor exacta este trecuta pe planul de armare). Rostul acestui beton este de a tine stalpii de armare neimscati in tot timpul turnarii.

Urmatoarea etapa este coborarea in fundatie a armaturii inferioare. Trebuie avut mare grija sa nu se murdareasca cu pamant si, in general, sa nu se surpe pamant in fundatie in timpul acestei operatiuni.

Apoi se toarna talpa fundatiei si se asteapta uscarea ei, cu mare grija ca in aceasta perioada sa nu cada pamant pe beton (se va curata greu, si numai cu un aspirator). In timpul in care se usuca talpa fundatiei se executa si armatura elevatiei apoi, se cofreaza.

Cand pregatirile sunt gata, urmeaza o noua turnare, a elevatiei. Se asteapta uscarea si a acestei portiuni betonate, apoi se decofreaza.

Dupa decofrare, se umple fundatia cu pamant, acesta se uda bine si se lasa cateva zile, sa se compacteze singur. Cand s-a uscat binisor, se compacteaza mecanizat, apoi se toarna pietris deasupra. Peste pietris de pune o folie de polietilena, peste folie polistiren expandat (de regula, gros de 3 cm), apoi plasa de armare a fundatiei. Cand toate sunt gata, se face ultima turnare, placa peste fundatie. Incepand de a doua zi dupa turnare, aceasta se va uda des, pentru a nu aparea fisuri in procesul de uscare a betonului.

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